## Java – Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values/multiple conditions. JAVA divides the operators in the following groups:

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- The Bitwise Operators
- Logical operators

## Arithmetic Operators

JAVA arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

+ | Addition | x + y | Sum of x and y |

– | Subtraction | x – y | Difference of x and y |

* | Multiplication | x * y | Product of x and y |

/ | Division | x / y | Quotient of x and y |

% | Modulus | x % y | Remainder of $x divided by $y |

** | Exponentiation | x ** y | Raising x to the y’th power |

## Assignment Operators

The Java assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable. The basic assignment operator in java is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment | Same as… | Description |
---|---|---|

x = y | x = y | The left operand the expression is equal to right |

x += y | x = x + y | Addition |

x -= y | x = x – y | Subtraction |

x *= y | x = x * y | Multiplication |

x /= y | x = x / y | Division |

x %= y | x = x % y | Modulus |

## Comparison Operators

The java comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

== | Equal | x == y | Returns true if x is equal to y |

=== | Identical | x === y | Returns true if x is equal to y, and they are of the same type |

!= | Not equal | x != y | Returns true if x is not equal to y |

<> | Not equal | x <> y | Returns true if $x is not equal to y |

!== | Not identical | x !== y | Returns true if x is not equal to y, or they are not of the same type |

> | Greater than | x > y | Returns true if $x is greater than $y |

< | Less than | x < y | Returns true if $x is less than $y |

>= | Greater than or equal to | x >= y | Returns true if x is greater than or equal to y |

<= | Less than or equal to | x <= y | Returns true if x is less than or equal to y |

## The Bitwise Operators

ThE Java have many bitwise operators such as integer types, long, int, short, char, and byte.

Operator | Name | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

& | bitwise and | Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | 0000 1100 |

| | bitwise or | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | 0011 1101 |

^ | bitwise XOR | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | 0011 0001 |

~ | bitwise compliment | Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits. | (~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2’s complement form due to a signed binary number. |

<< | left shift | The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | – |

>> | right shift | The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | – |

## Logical Operators

The JAVA logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

and | And | x and y | True if both x and y are true |

or | Or | x or y | True if either x or y is true |

xor | Xor | x xor y | True if either x or y is true, but not both |

&& | And | x && y | True if both x and y are true |

|| | Or | x || y | True if either x or y is true |

! | Not | !x | True if x is not true |

## Conditional Operator ( ? : )

Conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator. This operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate Boolean expressions.

**Syntax**

variable x = (expression) ? value if true : value if false

**Example**

public class Test { public static void main(String args[]) { int a, b; a = 30; b = (a == 1) ? 40: 50; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); b = (a == 30) ? 40: 50; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); } }

**output**

Value of b is : 50 Value of b is : 40

## instanceof Operator

operator checks whether the object is of class type or interface type.

**Syntax**

( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type)

**Example**

public class Test { public static void main(String args[]) { String name = "Jhon"; // following will return true since name is type of String boolean result = name instanceof String; System.out.println( result ); } }

**Output**

true