The git status command is a fundamental tool in Git that provides an overview of the current state of files in your repository. It shows information about changes, additions, deletions, and other relevant details in comparison to the currently checked-out commit. Here’s a more detailed explanation of how git status works:
1. Displaying Repository Status: The primary purpose of git status is to provide you with a clear and concise summary of the current state of your repository’s files.
2. Untracked, Modified, Staged Files: git status categorizes files into three main groups:
- Untracked files: Files that exist in your working directory but aren’t yet tracked by Git.
- Modified files: Files that have been modified in your working directory but haven’t been staged (added to the staging area).
- Staged files: Files that have been modified and are staged, ready to be committed.
3. Comparison to the Checked-Out Commit: git status compares the state of your working directory to the currently checked-out commit (usually the HEAD commit). It identifies differences and provides information on how each file has changed.
4. Displaying Branch Information: In addition to file status, git status also displays information about the current branch you’re on. It shows the branch name and whether you’re ahead or behind remote branches in case you’re working with remote repositories.
5. Displaying Merge and Rebase State: If you’re in the middle of a merge or rebase operation, git status will also provide information about the state of the merge or rebase.
6. Clean Working Directory: If there are no changes, additions, or deletions in your working directory, git status will let you know that the working directory is clean.
7. Usage for Decision-Making: Developers often use git status to decide which changes to commit, which files to stage, and which files to exclude from the commit.
8. Commit Message Recommendations: The output of git status often includes suggestions for commit messages, based on the changes detected in the working directory.
9. Interpreting Output: The output of git status includes clear and descriptive messages that indicate the status of each file, guiding you on what actions to take.
10. Basic Part of Workflow: git status is one of the first commands developers use after making changes, as it provides insights into which files are ready for commit and which need further attention.
“git status” Command Examples
1. Show changed files which are not yet added for commit:
# git status
2. Give output in [s]hort format:
# git status -s
3. Don’t show untracked files in the output:
# git status --untracked-files=no
4. Show output in [s]hort format along with [b]ranch info:
# git status -sb
In summary, git status is a command that displays a clear overview of the current state of files in your Git repository. It helps you understand the changes you’ve made, the files you’ve modified, and the files you’ve staged or left untracked. This information is crucial for maintaining an organized and efficient version control workflow.