The “git pull” command in Git is used to fetch the latest changes from a remote repository and merge them into the local repository. It combines two actions: “git fetch” and “git merge.”
Here’s a more detailed explanation of how “git pull” works:
- Fetching Changes: When you run “git pull,” Git first performs a “git fetch” operation. This operation retrieves the latest commits, branches, and tags from the remote repository and stores them in your local repository. This allows you to see the changes made by others without modifying your local branches.
- Merging Changes: After the fetch is completed, Git automatically proceeds to the “git merge” step. This step merges the fetched changes with your current branch, integrating them into your local branch’s history.
- Handling Conflicts: If there are any conflicts between the changes fetched from the remote repository and your local changes, Git will pause the merge process and prompt you to resolve the conflicts manually. Conflicts occur when both you and someone else have made changes to the same part of a file. You will need to review and modify the conflicting files to resolve the conflicts properly.
- Committing the Merge: Once any conflicts are resolved, Git will create a new merge commit that combines the fetched changes with your local changes. This commit will have multiple parents, representing the branches that were merged.
It’s important to note that “git pull” assumes you have already configured a remote repository for your local repository. The remote repository is typically named “origin” by default, but you can have multiple remotes if necessary.
Here’s an example of how to use “git pull” to fetch and merge changes from the remote repository’s “master” branch:
# git pull origin master
This command fetches the latest changes from the “master” branch in the remote repository called “origin” and merges them into your current local branch.
It’s worth mentioning that if you’re working on a branch other than “master,” you can replace “master” with the name of your branch.
git pull Command Examples
1. Download changes from default remote repository and merge it:
# git pull
2. Download changes from default remote repository and use fast-forward:
# git pull --rebase
3. Download changes from given remote repository and branch, then merge them into HEAD:
# git pull remote_name branch
In summary, “git pull” is a convenient command that fetches the latest changes from a remote repository and merges them into your local repository. It combines the “git fetch” and “git merge” operations into a single command, simplifying the process of keeping your local repository up to date with the remote repository.