The git merge command is a fundamental and widely used command in Git. It allows you to combine changes from one branch into another branch. When you merge branches, Git integrates the changes made on one branch into another, resulting in a combined history of both branches.
Here’s a general syntax for using the git merge command:
# git merge [branch-to-merge]
In this command, [branch-to-merge] represents the name of the branch that you want to merge into your current branch. The current branch is typically the branch where you are currently located.
When you execute the git merge command, Git performs a three-way merge. It identifies the common ancestor commit between the current branch and the branch to be merged, along with the changes made on both branches since they diverged.
Git automatically incorporates the changes from the branch to be merged into the current branch. If the changes don’t conflict with each other, Git applies them seamlessly. However, if there are conflicting changes, Git requires manual intervention to resolve those conflicts.
The merge commit created by Git includes a commit message indicating the merged branches and their commit references. This commit represents the integration of changes from the merged branch into the current branch.
It’s important to note that the git merge command affects the commit history of the current branch. It adds new commits that reflect the merged changes, potentially altering the order and structure of the commit history.
Merging is a crucial aspect of collaborative development, enabling teams to combine their work efficiently. It allows you to integrate features, bug fixes, or other changes from different branches, ensuring that your codebase stays up to date and cohesive.
git merge Command Examples
1. Merge a branch into your current branch:
# git merge branch_name
2. Edit the merge message:
# git merge -e branch_name
3. Merge a branch and create a merge commit:
# git merge --no-ff branch_name
4. Abort a merge in case of conflicts:
# git merge --abort