Here is an absolute beginner post on creating and removing Files and Directories under Linux.
The touch command creates a new empty file.
$ touch filename
You can create multiple files with the same command. If the file name or directory name already exists, the touch command updates the modification time and access time to the current date and time. You can use absolute or relative path names on the command line when creating new files.
To create an empty file named file1 in the /tmp directory, enter the following commands:
$ cd /tmp $ touch space $ ls -l file1 $ ls -l file -rw-r--r-- 1 geek wheel 0 Dec 13 22:05 file
To create multiple empty files use the touch commands with the file names in one line as shown below.
$ touch file1 file2 file3
$ ls -lrt file* -rw-r--r-- 1 geek wheel 0 Dec 13 22:19 file2 -rw-r--r-- 1 geek wheel 0 Dec 13 22:19 file1 -rw-r--r-- 1 geek wheel 0 Dec 13 22:19 file3
The mkdir command creates new directories.
$ mkdir directory_name
$ mkdir -p directory_names
Include the –p option if the directory name includes a path name. The command used with the -p option creates all of the non-existing parent directories that do not yet exist in the path to the new directory. You can use absolute or relative path names on the command line when creating new directories.
For example, create a new directory, named dir1, within the /tmp directory.
$ cd /tmp $ mkdir dir1
You can use the command ‘ls -ld’ to view the created directory.
$ ls -ld dir1 drwxr-xr-x 2 geek wheel 64 Dec 13 22:26 dir1
To create a new directory named dir_in located inside a directory named dir_out, use the mkdir command with the -p option. The dir_out directory does not yet exist.
$ mkdir -p dir_out/dir_in
To create the dir1, dir2, and dir3 directories, enter the mkdir command with all the directory names in one line as shown below.
$ mkdir dir1 dir2 dir3
$ ls -ld dir* drwxr-xr-x 2 sandy wheel 64 Dec 13 22:26 dir1 drwxr-xr-x 2 sandy wheel 64 Dec 13 22:28 dir2 drwxr-xr-x 2 sandy wheel 64 Dec 13 22:28 dir3
You can permanently remove files from the directory hierarchy with the rm command.
$ rm -option filename
The rm command is a destructive command if not used with the correct option. The table describes the options that you can use with the rm command when removing files and directories.
|-r||Includes the contents of a directory and the contents of all subdirectories when you remove a directory|
|-i||Prevents the accidental removal of existing files or directories|
The –r option allows you to remove directories that contain files and subdirectories. The -i option prompts you for confirmation before removing any file.
– A yes response completes the removal of the file.
– A no response aborts the removal of the file.
For example, remove the file named file1 from the /tmp directory.
$ cd /tmp $ rm file1
Lets see an example of using the -i option to delete the files.
$ rm -i file2 remove file2? y
You can use the rm command with the -r option to remove directories that contain files and subdirectories.
$ rm -options directories
For example, remove the dir1 directory and its content by using the rm –r command.
$ cd /tmp $ rm -r dir1
$ ls -ld dir1 ls: dir1: No such file or directory
If you do not use the -r option with the rm command while removing directories, the following error message appears:
rm: directoryname: is a directory.
To interactively remove a directory and its contents, use the –i option along with the rm –r command. For example,
$ rm -ir dir2 examine files in directory dir2? y remove dir2/file2? y remove dir2/file1? y remove dir2? y
The rmdir command removes empty directories.
$ rmdir directories
For example to remove the empty directory dir3, use the command below.
$ cd /tmp $ rmdir dir3
To remove a directory in which you are currently working in, you must first change to its parent directory.